Zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown

Device Physics doubts related to diode, transistor, BJT, MOSFET, JFET.
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Zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown

Post by Vijay » Sat Apr 19, 2014 11:04 am

Explain zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?

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Re: Zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown

Post by Narveer » Wed Apr 30, 2014 11:20 pm

In Zener breakdown the electrostatic attraction between the negative electrons and a large positive voltage is so great that it pulls electrons out of their covalent bonds and away from their parent atoms. i.e. Electrons are transferred from the valence to the conduction band. In this situation the current can still be limited by the limited number of free electrons produced by the applied voltage so it is possible to cause Zener breakdown without damaging the semiconductor. Zener breakdown occurs in heavily dopped PN diodes where depletion region is very narrow & a strong electric field is produced.

Avalanche breakdown occurs when the applied voltage is so large that electrons that are pulled from their covalent bonds are accelerated to great velocities. These electrons collide with the silicon atoms and knock off more electrons. These electrons are then also accelerated and subsequently collide with other atoms. Each collision produces more electrons which leads to more collisions etc. The current in the semiconductor rapidly increases and the material can quickly be destroyed. Avalanche breakdown occurs in lightly dopped PN diodes where depletion region is large & electric field is not strong. Charge carriers acquire energy from the applied potential.

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